Transferable Technologies

1. Design of Low Cost Checkdam Using Gabion In Bundelkhand region


Out of eight check dams constructed during 2006-07 in Garhkundar-Dabar watershed, two were low cost, built using gabions inside. Low cost check dams were on an average 32 per cent cheaper and equally efficient as compared to the normal ones. Till date low cast checkdams are in service without repair and maintenance. More than 5000 visitors including students, farmers, development agencies, researchers and policy makers visited the sites. Process has been initiated to get patent for the same.

2. Rainwater Harvesting and Recycling on Watershed Basis for Bundelkhand Region

Importance of the technology

Recharge of open wells

Bundelkhand region was reeling under severe drought during 2004 to 2007 resulted into huge migrations due to scarcity of water. Agroforestry in conjunction with in-situ and ex-situ  soil and water conservation measures are key to sustainable development of natural resources in Bundelkhand region as the region depends upon perched water for drinking and irrigation purposes. Poor ground water availability, low moisture retention of red soil, uncertain rains and severe drought during 2004-2007 in Bundelkhand region led to unprecedented migration. The drought spell was so intense that for the first time in recent past drinking water sources have dried up and resulted in huge loss of livestock.

Details of the technology

Rainwater harvesting

NRCAF, Jhansi selected and implemented in participatory mode the Garhkundar-Dabar watershed from 2005-06. The watershed is located near Niwari, 65 km. away from Jhansi in Tikamgarh district of Madhya Pradesh. The district is one of the most disadvantaged/ backward as per the Planning Commission, GOI. The watershed, drains into Betwa River, covering an area of 850 ha. It is located between 780 52’ 41” – 780 54’ 44” E longitude and 250 26’ 24” – 250 28’ 31”to N latitude. The elevation varies from 200 to 280 m above mean sea level. According to Strahler’s system of stream ordering, the natural drainage system of the watershed was classified and the main stream was found as 4th order stream.

To check erosion and conserve moisture, 150 gabions of various sizes were laid mainly on 1st and 2nd order streams. To improve the condition of water resources, a provision of about 23 thousand cubic meter rain water harvesting was made by constructing eight drop structures/ checkdams mainly on 2nd, 3rd and 4th order streams in series. Besides, sizable amount of water was temporarily stored against gabions, which are spread all over the watershed and is helping in increasing opportunity time for water to infiltrate. Three khadins (water spreader) were constructed in series to reduce erosive velocity of running water, apprehend soil loss and create water storage to augment the ground water recharge. Besides these structures, field/ contour bunding was done in an area of about 40 ha with the provisions of drainage structures.

Impact of the technology

Number of dry wells reduced to 15 per cent in May 2012 from 86 per cent in year 2006. Surface water in nallah is available throughout the year against four months in untreated area. Runoff and soil loss reduced by 34 to 46% and 43%, respectively in treated watershed as compared to untreated watershed. The peak discharge from the treated watershed was delayed by maximum 51 minutes as compared to untreated watershed. Loss of storage due to sedimentation was about 5 times less in treated watershed as compared to untreated watershed during the span of 4 years (2007-2010). Better moisture management through different kinds of bunding, and khadins resulted in increased productivity. Watershed management through agroforestry interventions increased the flow of income by 250 per cent. The drudgery is greatly reduced through availability of water in wells and hand pumps due to augmented groundwater recharge. Farmers from nearby villages use harvested water for day to day needs. Livestock getting enough water in nallah to quench their thirst even in peak summer time (May-June). During the past three years, 03 more tractors, 61 pucca rooms, 31 diesel pumps, 06 motor cycles and 02 flour mills have been added in the watershed. Now, more than 34,000 additional human days were created due to increased cropping intensity, crop demonstrations, agroforestry interventions, etc.

3. Cost Effective Design of Rainwater Harvesting Structures (RWHS)

Importance of the technology

Demonstration of cost effective construction of checkdam and prevention of seepage to the officials of Deptt. of Ag. and farmers of Jhansi district

The results of the recently completed global Comprehensive Assessment of Water for Food and Water for Life showed that a vast scope exists for doubling the productivity of rainfed agriculture in India and other Asian countries with available technologies. More investments in developing countries are needed in rainfed areas, as there is little scope to expand large-scale irrigation in India and other Asian countries considering economic viability and environmental concerns. In India, the needed increase in food production to meet increasing demand has to come largely from 94 m ha of rainfed areas under cultivation. In turn, Government of India has to invest huge sum towards rainwater harvesting structures to augment water availability in such region. Therefore, cost effective design of water harvesting structures leads to significant saving of public money.

Details of the technology

Construction of cost effective checkdam at Parasai-Sindh watershed, Jhansi

Construction cast of water harvesting Structures (masonry checkdam) was reduced through decreased width of foundation after 50 to 70 cm below ground level till depth of foundation. About 10 to 33 cum stone masonry could be saved. This technique was applied in all the checkdams constructed in Garhkundar-Dabar, Domagor–Pahuj and Parasai-Sindh watersheds and these checkdams are serving the community efficiently since 2006 without any repair and maintenance.

Impact of the technology

This technique will reduce the expenditure by about ` 30,000 to 1,00,000 in construction of each checkdam. Technology was advocated and demonstrated to the Project Implementing Agencies (PIAs), watershed committee and gram panchayats’ members, students, researchers and policy makers through more than 45 trainings and site visits. Technique has been widely adopted by PIAs of watershed projects under Integrated Watershed Management Programme in U.P. and M.P., gram panchayats of Jhansi and Tikamgarh districts.

4. Prevention of Seepage through Rainwater Harvesting Structures

Importance of the technology

Transfer of technology (cost-effective RHS and prevention of seepage) to all PIAs (IWMPs) of Tikamgarh district, M.P.

Construction of rainwater harvesting structures/pucca checkdam requires huge sums and its efficacy is greatly hampered due to seepage. Numbers of already constructed structures in the region is suffering from seepage due to faulty design and execution. Investment on such structures could be justified by making it effective by preventing seepage through the structures.   

Details of the technology

To rectify seepage from rainwater harvesting structures, following package of practices were adopted:

S. No.ActivitySize
1Excavation of trench up to required foundation level for the structure along the headwall and headwall extension in upstreamLength x 1m width x Required Depth
2Cement Concrete (1:2:4)Length X 0.10 m Width X Required Depth
3Cement Coatingwhole surface area of CC
4Black cotton soil without kankar  (brought from old pond)Length X 0.50 m Width X Required Depth

Impact of the technology

ectified water harvesting structure of Dhikauli gram panchayat, Jhansi

Technique to stop seepage from old checkdam was developed and adopted by different agencies in Bundelkhand region. Centre has received requests for technical advice to stop seepage from rainwater harvesting structures from PIAs, gram panchayat, watershed committee. One water harvesting structure was made effective on the request of Dhikauli Gram panchayat. This technique is also widely adopted in Bundelkhand region.

5. Concept of Drought Proofing in Bundelkhand Region

Importance of the technology

There was severe drought in Bundelkhand region from 2004-07. More than 81 per cent wells became dry resulting into severe scarcity of drinking water and huge migration towards metros in search of livelihoods. The region experiences undulating topography with hillocks and semi-arid climate. The region depends upon perched water as it rests on vast granite massif. Shallow open dug wells situated in unconfined aquifer (weathered zone) are the major source of drinking and irrigation water. Therefore, saturation of weathered zone is the only option for assured supply of water for various purposes.

Details of the technology

Gabions in 1st and 2nd order stream followed by series of scientifically and technically sound check dams across the drains in a watershed results in drought proofing with enhanced and sustained rural livelihoods. Even with deficit rainfall by about 30 per cent, water crisis in drought prone Bundelkhand region can be averted. The weathered zone could be fully saturated with 600-700 mm rainfall with above interventions otherwise this situation arrives with 1300 to 1400 mm rainfall

Impact of the technology

Garhkundar-Dabar watershed in true sense represents climatic, ecological, physiographical and socio-economic conditions of Bundelkhand region. Therefore, concept developed and successfully tested in Garhkundar-Dabar watershed can be replicated in whole of Bundelkhand region particularly in red soil. Rainfall analysis for more than 69 years indicates that only four years (1994, 2004, 2005 and 2006) received less than 500 mm rainfall. Therefore, region could be made drought proof with above interventions.   

6. Process of Participatory Watershed Development

Importance of the technology

Formation of watershed committee at village Parasai in Parasai-Sindh watershed, Jhansi

Better eco-system services, particularly water availability and producing food and fodder to increasing human and animal population are important concern, in general, in arid and semi-arid tropics. These regions of India are not only prone to severe droughts and drinking water crisis but also the hot spots of poverty, malnutrition, poor infrastructure, and inadequate hygienic living conditions. Out of total cultivable land (142 million ha) in the country, 60 per cent area is under rainfed condition. Agricultural productivity of these areas oscillates between 0.5 and 2.0 t ha-1 with average of one ton production per ha. Rest of 40 per cent irrigated land significantly contributes in satisfying 55 % of total food requirement of the country. On the other hand they consume almost 70% of fresh water resources of the country and have left limited scope for expanding irrigated area further. Thus, achieving food security of the country in future is largely dependent on rainfed agriculture through watershed management. Govt. of India is presently investing more than ` 2500 crore annually to improve the condition of natural resources through watershed management under Integrated Watershed Management Programme (IWMP) for better eco-system services through peoples participation.

Growing realization for peoples participation in natural resource management on watershed basis warrants practical solution in the form of process development based on ground realities. The process should have practical utility and instrumental in garnering support from various stake holders. With this view in mind an attempt has been made to develop process by which people participation is ensured. 

Details of the technology

Transparency in execution of works results into higher people’s participation and quality interventions. In Parasai-Sindh watershed, villagers and watershed committee members were fully involved in the process of execution of different watershed development interventions. The committee was constituted in open meeting and working was briefed. The committee does procurement of all materials, enters in record book, verifies all the bills and submits for payment. The account is maintained by the PIA. The site selection for construction of structures is done by the committee in presence of the experts. Designing and assessment of materials is done by the team and committee is entrusted the execution. Similarly for enhancing productivity, decision on procurement of quality seeds, planting materials and other inputs is also taken by the committee in open meeting. The onus of execution lies with the villagers which is driving force for speedy sailing of the project works. This led to the speedy execution and quality outcome at competitive cost besides huge people’s participation.

Impact of the technology

Participatory selection of sites for rainwater harvesting structures at Parasai-Sindh watershed, Jhansi

The process so developed is smoothly working in Parasai-Sindh watershed. This has enabled village community to take up the responsibility and seed up the execution of quality works with transparency such that cost is minimized and corruption mitigated. The process has paved way for greater contributions by the community. The process can be replicated in other watershed projects.

7. Aonla based Agroforestry Land Use For Rainfed Condition in Bundelkhand Region

Importance of the technology

Among semi-arid and arid fruit crops, aonla is one of the best options for utilizing rainfed areas. Aonla based agroforestry has immense potential in economic utilization of rainfed area for betterment of poor farmers, because of its hardiness as well as quick return with higher economic value.  Aonla is one of the richest sources of vitamin C. Aonla also contains tannin. Aonla is widely used in auyrvedic medicine including hair wash, hair oils and village tanners also use the fruit and bark in tanning of leather. Besides medicine, aonla fruits can be preserved as murabba, sauce, candy, jellies, pickles, tophies and powder. These products are very popular and useful in human nutrition.

Planting techniques

Aonla can be planted with different planting techniques like sunken method of planting, stone mulching and sunken method of planting associated with deep tillage followed by kharif crop to retain residual moisture and increase the water infiltration into deeper soil layer. In border, different varieties of aonla like NA 6, NA 10 and Krishna can be planted with same method of planting to facilitate proper pollination.  The aonla is planted at 10 x 10 m spacing.

Stone mulching

The pits (1m x 1m and 1m deep) are excavated before rain and later refilled with FYM and soil mixture up to 0.60 m depth. Malathion dust @ 50 gram per pit is also used to protect the trees from termites. One year old budded plants of aonla are planted after onset of monsoon. The small pieces of stone locally available in field were collected and put on the refilled mixture in layer by layer up to 0.90 m depth. The rest of 0.10 m depth of the pits is kept as open. Small ridge is prepared around the pit and an inlet was made on upper side of the slope to collect runoff water during rain (refer to Fig. 1& 2-A).

Sunken method of planting

Method of insitu water harvesting

The size of pit and other planting method is same as first technique.  The FYM and soil mixture is filled up to 0.60 m depth and rest of the space (0.40m) of the pit is kept as open (refer to Fig. 2-B). It looks as bowl shape and it can store approximately 315 liters of water during runoff producing storm.

Sunken method of planting associated with deep tillage of the plots

Aonla based AF system-1

Planting of fruit tree is done same as above technique. In addition to this, the whole plot is ploughed with mould board plough followed by cultivator with planking after harvesting of kharif crop. Deep tillage (25-30 cm) assists in opening up of the hard soil layers and faster penetration of rainwater as well as the evaporation also decreases.

Impact of the technology

Aonla based AF system

The B:C ratio at discounted  price of the system in seven year period is  about 1.50 and on simple basis it was 1.84. The technology has been adopted by 85 farmers in about 110 ha area in the semi arid region.

8. Eucalyptus based Agrisilviculture System

Importance of the technology

Eucalyptus is highly versatile with respect to edaphoclimatic requirements. It is an exotic, multipurpose tree species and can come up very well from Punjab to Tamil Nadu and from arid to wet region. The species is known for its high water use efficiency. The wood is widely used as minor timber, poles, paper pulp and fuelwood. The species has high water use efficiency so it is most suited for canal lands and along water bodies.

Details of the technology

Improved clones (propagated by cutting) of E. treticornis (C- 3, C-6, C-7 and C-10) under block plantation, boundary plantation and agrisilviculture system at 10×2 m spacing in 1st rotation of 5 years enhanced overall productivity. It can be planted as boundary plantation (2x2m in chess board pattern in 2-3 rows) or block plantation (3×3 m) or as agrisilviculture landuse (10x2m). Suitable clones for central India have been evaluated at NRCAF, Jhansi. The species is highly suited for boundary plantation under agroforestry system in rainfed areas.

Impact of the Technology

Eucalyptus based agroforestry system

In view of great demand for wood, the system is very remunerative to the framers. Total dry biomass (including above and below ground) ranged from 92.97 to 294.30 kg/tree with an average value of 164.66 kg tree-1.

9. Superior Genotype of Neem (Azadirachta indica)

Importance of the technology

Neem is known for its insecticidal property. Use of neem leaves for disinfecting surroundings of chicken pox patient is known since ages. Neem tooth brush is most common in India across the society. More over neem is common throughout India mostly on non-forest land and has acceptance everyone. It is largely non browsed and give shade during hot summer, hence neem plantation is preferred in habitats. Farmers are already practicing neem based agroforestry systems either as boundary plantation, block plantation or scattered plantation in arid, semi-arid and sub-tropical region. However, its success depends on market information system.

Details of the technology

Three superior genotypes of neem have been identified on the basis of fruit yield, fast growth, straightness, clear bole length, azadirachtin content (> 0.4% on kernel basis) and oil content (> 46% on kernels basis).

Impact of the technology

Superior genotypes of neem

Selected genotypes have proved their superiority over check in multilocation testing in Gujarat, Maharashtra and A.P. once, planted on large scale for its industrial use.

10. Bundel -2 (PT-2) and Bundel-6 (PT-6) varieties of D. sissoo Developed

Importance of the technology

Shisham is known for its timber value and is common throughout North India on forest lands.

Details of technology

Superior genotypes of D. sissoo

Superior genotypes of shisham PT-2 and PT-6 have been identified at NRCAF Jhansi. They are highly straight, fast in growth and performed well on shallow gravelly red soil under multilocational testing. Improved clones  ensured 5-6 m length of clear bole of 14 cm  diameter in 10 years  with  12m3/ha /year wood productivity, which was about 30-35%  higher over check.

Impact of the technology

Selected genotypes are being used by the farmers at large scale.

11. Top Working of Carissa (wild karonda)

Importance of technology

Carissa spinarum

Carissa spinarum is a common shrub on wastelands and barren lands. The species withstands high biotic stress. However, fruits are small and inferior in quality, hence not remunerative. Making best use of available rootstocks there is a need to improve the quality of the fruit through top working.

 Details of the technology

The technique envisages heading back root stock (about 15 cm above ground level) in the month of March. Selection of 2- 3 coppiced shoots per plant for top working and finally shield budding on the root stocks in the month of May-June  with improved “American red-white” variety of large fruit Karonda. The scion bud after separation from mother plant needs cleaning with fresh water such that milky secretion is washed away and bud union takes place within a fortnight and sprouting appears after a month. Meanwhile, shoots emerging on the rootstocks are removed time to time. Initially growth of ultimate plant is slow, however plant growth improves with time. Thus top worked plant starts fruiting after juvenile phase of 2-3 years. “This technology can enhance quality fruit production from waste lands and simultaneously contribute to the protection of degraded lands”.

Impact of the technology

This technology can be widely used by the farmers of the semiarid region of India on a large scale. Forest Department and JFM committees can take up the technology for revenue generation from degraded forest lands

12. Bench grafting in aonla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.)

Importance of the technology

Aonla plants are multiplied by patch budding on rootstocks raised in nursery bed. Such plants often give poor field establishment due to root damage while lifting. This also takes two years to prepare a plant ready for planting. To overcome the problems, grafting on six months old seedlings raised in polythene bag was standardized at the centre. Further taking advantage of dormancy, bench grafting was standardized in aonla. Bench grafted plants give cent percent field establishment and ready for planting in early monsoon season within one and a half years of seed sowing in bed or polybags. Moreover they are transport friendly hence, in great demand.

 Details of the technology

Seeds are sown in bed or bag in the month of March and taken care of. In the following February they are gently uprooted with intact fibrous roots after watering. Bare rooted seedlings are stored in wet gunny bags or moist moss grass and brought to shaded area for grafting. Scion (8-9 months old) is collected from desired variety. Length of scion is 12-15 cm and stored near stock in wet gunny bag. Grafting (cleft grafting) is done while sitting at a place in shade and grafts are stored in another wet gunny bag. These stored grafts can be transported to long distances in bundle with wet moss grass within 2-3 days. Grafts are then replanted in polythene bags filled with soil+FYM (1:1). After placing grafts in polythene bags they are covered with 2.5 cm wide and 18-20 cm long polytube (cap). Open end of polytube is buried in soil such that it acts as an individual polyhouse to graft. All grafted plants are placed in partial shade and watered regularly. Grafts sprout within 10-15 days and then cap is cut opened from top to facilitate dissipation of water vapours collected inside the cap and allows growth of scion shoot. After a month, cap is pulled away and plants are hardened. By July i.e. planting season, grafts are ready for field plantation. The method gives more than 80% success and cent per cent field establishment. Storage of grafts in February upto 3 days does not hamper success of grafting.

 Impact of technology

The technology has solved problem of poor field establishment. A trained budder can graft upto 200 seedlings in a day. Nursery grower can save money on weeding, lifting and realize better price for such plants.

13. Bench Grafting in Ber (Zizyphus spp.)

Importance of the Technology

Ber is very common in drought prone areas of the country. Ber plants give poor field establishment due to strong tap root system. Technique of raising nursery in polythene tubes and budding upon them was standardized in India. Bench grafting in ber is a step forward in this direction. Taking advantage of dormancy in ber, the technique is developed. This ensures high success of grafting, uses dormant scion shoot, which is otherwise pruned and wasted, gives high field establishment and ensures availability of transplantable grafted plants within a year of seed sowing.

Details of the Technology

The technique envisage raising nursery by seed in seed bed or polybags, up-rooting seedling in following May-June, collecting pruned scion shoot (8-9 months old) from desired variety and cleft grafting on bare rooted stock while  sitting at a place in partial shade. Uprooted stock and severed scion are stored in wet gunny bags and grafted plants in another. They are shifted in polythene bags filled with 1:1 soil FYM mixture and capped with polytube 2.5 x 18-20 cm size. Tube is closed from top and lower end is buried in soil. Thus grafted plants are placed in shade and regularly watered. Union takes place within 15-20 days and scion starts sprouting. Cap is cut open from top to facilitate dissipation of water vapour. Plants are hardened in nursery. Grafted plants are ready for planting in field within a year of seed sowing and give high establishment. Z. mauritiana root stock gave above 80% success, while Z. numularia showed below 80% success.

Impact of the technology

The technique ensures multiplication of establishment friendly ber plants within a year. Nursery grower as well as farmers can be largely benefitted

14. Vegetative Propagation of Neem Through Air Layering

Importance of the technology

Neem is common throughout India on non-forest lands and known for its medicinal aesthetic, fodder, seed oil, cake and minor timber values. Superior genotypes of Neem, have been identified on the basis of fast growth, straight bole, fruit yield, oil content and azadirachtin content.   

Air layering for mass multiplication of true to the type selected genotype has been developed using 600 ppm IBA. Selected genotypes have proved their superiority over check in Multilocational testing in Gujarat, Maharashtra and A.P. The genotypes contains more than 0.4% Azadirachtin and >46% oil on kernel basis. They produce 20- 30% higher wood, fruit and Azadirachtin than check.

Details of the technology

One year old semi-hard terminal shoots of neem plant are air layered using 200 ppm IBA wrapped with wet moss grasses in the month of July which gives about 70% rooting in layers. Such plants give fruiting in summers and facilitate quick evaluation of germplasm for oil content and azadirachtin, the active ingredient for insecticidal property. Air layered plants are true to the type and do not show juvenility.

Impact of the technology

Depending upon size of mother plant about 750-1000 plants in a year can be produced.

Nurseries (Pvt., Govt.) and captive plantations can be benefitted with this technology.

15. Vegetative Propagation of Pongamia Pinnata through Stem Cuttings and Air Layering

Importance of the technology

Vegetative propagation of Pongamia pinnata through stem cuttings and air layering ensures quality planting materials 

Details of the Technology

Stem cuttings (15 – 20 cm length) taken from selected mature mother trees (10 – 12 yr old) during February and treated with IBA 400 ppm for 12 hrs. The stem cutting tip is covered with wax. Then immediately placed in polythene bags (10 x 20 cm) filled with soil+FYM. The stem cuttings are watered and placed under partial shade or mist chamber at 250C and relative humidity 60 – 70 %. Sprouting takes place within 10 – 15 days and rooting takes place within a month with more than 70 % success. The stem cutting plants are ready for plantation in ensuring monsoon season. 

Impact of the technology

The technology is being adopted by the farmers of arid and semi-arid tropics.

16. Methodology for Early Selection of Elite Trees of Acacia nilotica

Importance of technology

Methodology of selection of best desirable genotype at an early age can significantly reduce the time of tree breeder and can provide desirable variety in shortest time. Thus, farmers and tree growers can realize the benefit of quality product and make profit from their plantations.

Details of the technology

To develop this methodology, performance of 15 selected families’ of A. nilotica was continuously evaluated from the seedling stage. Significantly high age-age correlations found between ages 48 and 60 months and also between 60 and 72 months for three traits viz. height, collar diameter and dbh, clearly indicated that growth of tree at older age is closely related with growth at younger age. Yield parameters like timber/ stem biomass being an important trait for A. nilotica, there is need of biomass equations. In order to develop biomass equations, branch and stem biomass data was recorded by harvesting of A. nilotica trees at 4.5 and 5.5 years. High correlations were found between dbh and stem biomass (r=0.942), between dbh and total wood biomass (r=0.945). Since both height (H) and dbh (D) are highly correlated with biomass (W), so these are taken as explanatory variables for fitting biomass equations. Equations of first type were found better than second type on the basis of statistical criteria of adjusted R2 and mean square error (MSE).

Non-linear equations fitted for branch, stems and total biomass of A. nilotica


Fitted equation

Adj. R2


Stem biomass

W = 1.411 – 0.881 D + 0.393 D2



W = -2.178 +1.191 D +0.047 DH +192.768 D2H



Branch biomass

W = -1.931 + 0.816 D + 0.164 D2



W = -3.738+ 1.548 D+ 0.117 DH -14.275 D2H



Total Wood biomass

W = -0.519 – 0.065 D + 0.557 D2



W = -5.917 +2.738 D +0.164 DH +178.492 D2H



Impact of the technology

The developed equations may be used for estimating stem/ timber biomass of standing trees. The estimated stem/ timber biomass of A. nilotica trees for different ages will be used in developing age-age correlation models to determine suitable age of early selection.

17. Development and Testing of Age-Age Correlation Models

Importance of the technology

An age-age correlation is an important tool for early selection of progenies in tree improvement programme to shorten the breesing cycle. The age-age correlation models were developed and employed for Dalbergia sissoo and age of early selection was determined.

Details of the technology      

Age age correlations model fitted for trait index D2H

Empirical models were fitted for age-age correlations for tree traits viz. height, diameter at breast height and D2H. . The adjusted R2 values for the fitted models were found to be 0.783, 0.856 and 0.931, respectively for the three traits, respectively. This indicates that model for trait index D2H i.e. rage,age = 1.011 + 0.183 LAR, where LAR is loge of plantation age ratio of any two ages involved in an age-age correlation will give better predictions of age-age correlations than other two traits. This model was used for estimating efficiency of early selection in terms of gain per unit time for different rotation ages. The efficiency for selection at age 9 and rotation age 30 comes out to be 1.864, which means that selection at 9 years would yield 1.864 times more gain than would selection at age 30. Similarly the efficiency for selection at age 10 and rotation age 35 comes out to be 1.98, which means that selection at 10 years would yield 1.98 times more gain than would selection at age 35.

Another model suggested by Magnussen (1989) was employed for predicting phenotypic age-age correlations. It was observed that predicted age-age correlations (r6:7, r6:8, r6:9, r7:8, r7:9 and r8:9) were found closer to the observed ones. The predicted age-age correlations of trait height were lower than the observed ones whereas correlations of dbh were on higher side except in two cases r7:8 and r7:9. As an application of this model, height and dbh (at ages 6 and 9 years) are the traits considered for improvement and the desired age-9-to-age-40 correlations (r9:40) for two traits were predicted. The r9:40 come out to be 0.549 and 0.580 for two traits, respectively. These predicted correlations were higher than the minimum juvenile-mature correlation i.e. 0.311. Thus on the basis of this model age 9 appears reasonably good to mature selection for the improvement of height and diameter at breast height of D. sissoo.

18. Agroforestry Mapping Through Sub-Pixel Classifier

For mapping and estimating area under agroforestry in India, the following approach has been adopted:

  1. Flowchart showing methodology for agroforestry mapping
    From each agro-climatic zone, 20% districts representing that zone will be randomly selected.
  2. For each district, remote sensing data (LISS III, 23.5 m resolution) will be processed for land uses and land covers (LULC) using supervised classification methods.
  3. From this LULC, agricultural area (cropland + fallow land) will be masked because agroforestry exists on agricultural land only.
  4. Then sub-pixel classifier method will be applied on this agricultural area, which gives output in the form of percentage tree cover (20-30, 30-40, .………, 90-100 per cent) within a pixel.
  5. Area of such pixels where minimum 20 percent to maximum 100 percent tree canopy cover is found will give an estimate of area under agroforestry in that district.
  6. Advantage of sub-pixel classifier is that all types of agroforestry (scattered trees on farmlands, boundary plantations and agri-silvicuture/ agri-horticulture and block plantations), all are accounted (Figure 2). This is not true in case of pixel based classifiers such as maximum likelihood, minimum distance to mean, etc.
  7. Agroforestry area obtained for such 20 per cent districts in a particular agro-climatic zone will be extrapolated for entire zone.
  8. Cumulative sum of area under agroforestry for all agro-climatic zones will give an estimate of area under agroforestry for whole country.
Identification of agroforestry systems through sub-pixel classifier

This methodology has been developed and standardized for agroforestry mapping at district level. Using above approach the agroforestry area has been estimated for 10 agro-climatic regions, which come out to be 16.60 million ha (7.98% of geographical area.